看國外 | 防范非洲豬瘟,除生物安全還應注意哪些要點?

來源:愛豬網 時間:2019-10-15 09:26:10 舉報
豬友之家提醒:本文觀點僅供參考,請正確認識非洲豬瘟,做好防疫工作,切勿傳播謠言。

As there is currently no vaccine for African Swine Fever, the only way to fight the virus is to have extremely good biosecurity practices in place on farm and across borders. Knowledge is power in this respect: ASFv is an ‘enveloped virus’. What does this mean in practice and how does it help to be as well prepared as possible?

由于目前還沒有針對非洲豬瘟的疫苗,對抗這種病毒的唯一方法是在農場和邊境上采取非常好的生物安全措施。在這方面,知識就是力量:非洲豬瘟病毒是一種“包膜病毒”。這在實踐中意味著什么?如何盡可能做好準備?

As is well known, African Swine Fever (ASF) is a highly contagious viral haemorrhagic disease that can be fatal to pigs and wild boars. Currently, for this virus, no approved vaccine exists.

眾所周知,非洲豬瘟(ASF)是一種高傳染性病毒性出血熱,可致豬死亡。目前,對于這種病毒,還沒有獲批的疫苗。

According to different sources, the routes of transmission of the infectious agent are as follows:

根據不同來源,傳染媒介的傳播途徑如下:

?Oro-nasal route by contact with an infected animal carrying the virus and by exchange of secretions. The virus is present in all body fluids and tissues of the infected animal;

?經口鼻途徑與攜帶病毒的受感染動物接觸和交換分泌物。病毒存在于受感染動物的所有體液和組織中;

?Oro-nasal route by direct contact with the virus present in the environment where it can survive (excrement, fodder, liquid manure, manure, litter, equipment, vehicles, clothing, etc.);

?經口鼻途徑直接接觸病毒所存在的環境(糞便、飼料、水肥、糞肥、垃圾、設備、車輛、衣物等);

?Through the air, in the barn, over very short distances in the case of high density pigs;

?高密度養殖群中,空氣傳播;

?Ingestion of water or contaminated food (contaminated food waste, contaminated fresh meat that has not been sufficiently heat treated, etc.);

?攝入受污染的水或食物(受污染食物廢料、未經充分熱處理的受污染鮮肉);

?Bites from ticks of the genus Ornithodoros carrying the virus and biting flies as well.

?被攜帶病毒的鳥齒龍屬的扁虱或蒼蠅叮咬。

Good biosecurity is essential to protect pigs from ASF. Photo: Koos Groenewold

良好的生物安全在預防豬瘟上至關重要。圖:Koos Groenewold

Sensitive to disinfectants

對消毒劑敏感

African Swine Fever virus is a double stranded DNA virus single member of genus Asfivirus and the family Asfarviridae. Several genotypes (22) of the species have, however, been identified and virulence differs greatly from one isolate to another.

非洲豬瘟病毒是一種雙鏈DNA病毒,是非洲豬瘟病毒屬和非洲豬瘟病毒科的一個成員。目前已識別該物種的22個基因型,但毒力在不同的分離株之間有很大的差異。

The extracellular enveloped viruses have a diameter that varies between 175 to 215 nm. They are relatively large compared to other viruses, some of which only measure 10 to 30 nm (see Figure 1). Their capsid is an icosahedral structure of capsomeres surrounded by an outer layer mainly made up of lipids, qualifying them as large enveloped viruses. This outer envelope is essential for infection.

細胞外包膜病毒的直徑在175到215納米之間。與其他病毒相比,它們相對較大,其中一些病毒只有10 - 30nm長(見圖1)。它們的衣殼是由主要由脂質組成的外層包圍的衣囊二十面體結構,因此被認為是大包膜病毒。這個外膜是造成感染的必要條件。

In the fight against ASF, it is an advantage that these viruses belong to groups of large enveloped viruses, as they are much more sensitive to disinfectants than viruses without an envelope (known as ‘naked’), especially if they are small.

在與非瘟的斗爭中,有一個優勢是這些病毒屬于大包膜病毒,比沒有包膜的病毒(即“裸病毒”)對消毒劑更敏感,特別在其很小的時候。

That is why the virucidal activity of disinfectants is tested on a reference virus: Cytopathic Bovine Orphan (ECBO) virus. It is a small naked virus (27 nm in diameter), easy to grow in the laboratory and very resistant to biocides. Therefore, the disinfectants’ virucidal activity which has been demonstrated on this reference virus, according to European standardised methods, is capable of demonstrating virucidal activity on ASFv, whatever the genotype.

這就是為什么消毒劑的抗病毒活性是在一個參考病毒上測試的:牛呼腸孤病毒(ECBO)。這是一種小型的裸病毒(直徑27納米),易于在實驗室中生長,對殺菌劑有很強的抵抗力。因此,消毒劑的抗病毒活性已經在這一參考病毒上得到了證明,根據歐洲標準方法,能夠證明其對非瘟病毒的抗病毒活性,無論哪種基因型。

Dissemination of the virus

病毒傳播

The virus is relatively resistant in the environment and can therefore spread very quickly. Some strains can remain infectious across a wide range of pH values from 4 to 13. Studies also show virulent activity of strains stored for five and seven years at 5°C, for 18 months at 20°C and between ten and 30 days at 37°C. The virus can also survive in protective media such as soil or animal faeces for five to six months and up to 30 months in chilled meat. However, it is inactivated at a temperature of 60°C applied for 30 minutes.

非瘟病毒在環境中抵抗力相對更強,因此可以迅速傳播。有些菌株在pH值4-13的范圍內仍然具有傳染性。研究還表明,在5°C條件下保存5年和7年、在20°C條件下保存18個月、在37°C條件下保存10天到30天的菌株具有劇毒活性。病毒還可以在土壤或動物糞便等保護性介質中存活5至6個月,在冷凍肉中存活30個月。然而,在60°C的溫度下,30分鐘便失活。

In general, it is observed that resistance and survival of enveloped viruses is much higher based on temperatures below 10°C compared to high temperatures (above 20°C), in the environment or under disinfectant treatment (see Table 1).

總體而言,我們觀察到,與高溫(20℃以上)環境或消毒劑處理下相比,在10℃以下,包膜病毒的抗性和存活率要高得多。

General biosecurity measures

常規生物安全措施

The fight against the disease lies in prevention: avoiding the spread of the virus from infected or endemic areas (strict imports, monitored transportation of animals, etc.).

與非瘟的斗爭重點在于預防:避免病毒從受感染或流行地區傳播進來(嚴格控制進口、監測動物運輸等)。

On farms, it is essential to ensure the protection of the animals with regards to all external sources and entrants:

在農場,必須切實保護生豬,免受所有外來物料的威脅:

?Access to buildings should be controlled: use of personal protective equipment is pivotal to access livestock buildings;

?進入豬舍應受到控制:使用個人防護設備是進入牲畜欄舍的關鍵;

?Footbaths should be placed at the entrances of each building;

?每棟建筑物的入口處應設置洗腳盆;

?Vehicles should be cleaned and disinfected inside and out and on-site (including inner parts of the mudguard);

?車輛里外(包括擋泥板內側)應進行清潔消毒;

?Tractors and trailers used should be cleaned and disinfected to remove manure;

?使用的拖頭及拖架須清潔及消毒,以清除糞便;

?All clothing should be washed at 60°C;

?所有衣物應在60°C下洗滌;

?Improvement of building maintenance, pest control, rodent control, liquid manure removal, etc.;

?改善豬舍維修、防治蟲鼠、滅鼠、清除糞肥等;

?Improvement of cleaning and disinfection procedures on all surfaces of buildings and equipment and the environment in general;

?改進欄舍和設備所有表面的清潔和消毒程序,以及整體環境;

?Monitoring of entrants (food, water, etc.);

?監控進入豬場的物料(水源、飼料等);

?Monitoring of animal health (abnormal signs or symptoms).

?監測生豬健康狀況(及時發現異常體征或癥狀)。

Biocidal strategy

生物消毒劑

Animal health company Huvepharma is marketing the biocidal glutaraldehyde/ammonium products Vulkan Max and Vulkan Air. Both have been tested on ECBO virus according to EN standards. Vulkan Max, in particular, demonstrated efficacy on specific ASFv:

動保公司Huvepharma正在出售生物殺滅戊二醛/銨產品Vulkan Max和Vulkan Air。根據歐洲標準,這兩種病毒都經過了ECBO病毒測試。尤其是Vulkan Max,其對特異性非瘟病毒的療效得到了證明:

?At less than 0.8%, according to the last EN 14675 standard; 30 minutes at 10°C;

?根據最新的EN14675標準,10℃下作用30分鐘,低于0.8%,;

?At 0.2% according to the Russian standard; 1 hour at 20°C at low soiling level conditions;

?按俄羅斯標準,20°C低污條件下作用1小時,0.2%;

?At 0.5% according to the Russian standard; 1 hour at 20°C at high soiling level conditions.

?按俄羅斯標準,20°C高污染條件下作用1小時,0.5%。

If the disease is reported

若疾病確診

If a case is proven, establishment of a management procedure for hazardous areas includes:

一旦病情得到證實,危險區域管理程序的建立包括:

?Elimination of animals: slaughter of all animals in the farms concerned;

?撲殺生豬:屠殺相關豬場所有生豬;

?Isolation and securing of the site: rigorous and controlled confinement and isolation procedures;

?豬場隔離保護:嚴格和受控的限制和隔離程序;

?Cleaning and disinfection of premises in collaboration with the competent authorities and selected service providers.

?與有關當局和選定的服務商合作,對豬場進行清潔和消毒。

As observed in Europe and in some regions of Asia, the transmission of ASF seems to depend largely on the wild boar population density and their interaction with low-biosecurity pig production systems. Good knowledge and management of the wild boar population and a good coordination among the veterinary services, wildlife and forestry authorities are required to successfully prevent and control ASF.

正如在歐洲和亞洲一些地區所觀察到的,非洲豬瘟的傳播似乎在很大程度上取決于野豬種群密度及其與低生物安全性生豬生產系統的相互作用。要成功地預防和控制非洲豬瘟,需要對野豬種群有良好的認識和管理,并在獸醫服務、野生動物和林業部門之間建立良好協調。

原文鏈接

https://www.pigprogress.net/Health/Articles/2019/10/Preparing-for-ASFv-An-enveloped-virus-479463E/

文章來源:Pig Progress

(文/愛豬網記者劉坤穎編譯,愛豬網原創,轉載請注明出處)

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